How does Avemar work?

Avemar has been shown to have many mechanisms of action, not surprising since as a natural compound, it is composed of a naturally occurring blend of many medicinally active constituents.

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Mechanism of Action

Molecular targets of Avemar

MHC-1 (Major Histo-compatibility Class 1 protein)

Tumors can fool the immune system by disguising themselves as normal cells. They can develop a camouflage by expressing high levels of MHC-I in order to to avoid recognition by the specific cells of the immune system that play an important role in antitumor defense – the so called natural killer (NK) cells. Natural killer cells recognize and are blocked by the expression of MHC-I molecules on their target cells. As Avemar reduces the MHC-I level on human tumor cells, it sensitizes them against NK killing, thus reducing their metastatic activities.

ICAM-1 (Intercellular adhesion molecule-1)

In order to defend the body effectively, some cells of the immune system – the leucocytes – require special molecules to help them get through the walls of the vessels and infiltrate the attacker. One of these special molecules is called the ICAM-1. In the presence of abundant amounts of ICAM-1, leukocytes can get through the walls of the vessels easily. It is known that the inner cells of the vessels of some tumors have smaller amount of ICAM-1 compared to normal cells, and this phenomenon can be considered an escape mechanism because efficient leukocyte infiltration is impaired. It has been shown that Avemar makes more ICAM-1 on the cells of the vessels, thus helping the leucocytes to infiltrate the tumor.

RR (ribonucleotid reductase)

Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is an enzyme, and is needed for DNA synthesis. It was demonstrated that this enzyme is more active in cancer cells, and therefore looks like excellent target for cancer chemotherapy. It was shown that Avemar blocks this enzyme, which favorably impairs the creation of DNA for cancer cells.

PARP (Poly-ADP–ribose-Polymerase)

PARP is an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in repairing the DNA chains. The activity of this enzyme is extremely high in cancer cells because they are highly dependent upon the active function of their DNA. In the presence of PARP, the cells can correct their eventual mistakes, which coincidentally happen during cell division. Similarly, if PARP does not work well, it leads to DNA fragmentation and thus to cell death (called apoptosis). Avemar inhibits PARP, therefore DNA repair in cancer cells is also impaired. It was also shown that Aveamar does not trigger apoptosis in healthy cells.

COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes

These enzymes play a crucial role in the immune system, and the pharmacological inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain. Avemar non-selectively inhibits both of these enzymes and this feature may partly explain its anti-inflammatory activities against adjuvant arthritis in rats and rheumatoid arthritis in humans.

The effects of Avemar on cancer cell metabolism

supports cell metabolic regulation

Glucose (sugar) is the most important source of energy for cancer cells, but they use glucose in different ways than normal cells. While normal cells need lots of oxygen in order to burn glucose for, cancer cells use less oxygen and, apart from energy, create lots of basic components for their DNA too.
It has been shown that Avemar does not allow cancer cells to produce DNA - the critical component of cell growth - from glucose but deviates the biochemical process to built fat - helping to decrease the life threatening wasting syndrome, or cachexia. This attribute is of utmost importance if the stage of the disease shows the signs of rapid weight loss. Research has already proved that stopping the loss of weight or at least reducing the speed is beneficial and can prolong life of patients suffering from cancer.

The effects of Avemar on the Immune system

It has been shown that Avemar increases cellular immune response by various means. It effectively boosts the production of certain cytokines helping the immune system attacking cancer cells. Avemar also helps the production of a special mediator (ICAM) assisting the immune cells passing through the walls of the vessels, which allows these cells to identify and destroy the malignant cells embedded in the surrounding tissues. By expressing a special protein (MHC-I) on their surface malignant cells can mimick to be non cancerous. Research showed that Avemar can distort this mask and Natural Killer cells could spot cancer cells more easily.

Intensive chemotherapy might cause episodes with high fever partly caused by the insufficient number of white blood cells as a consequence of the treatment. A study has shown that these episodes were less frequent in pediatric cancer patients who received Avemar. It has been shown that Avemar increases cellular immune response and acts as an immuno-modulating agent.

COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes

These enzymes play a crucial role in the immune system, and the pharmacological inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain. Avemar non-selectively inhibits both of these enzymes and this feature may partly explain its anti-inflammatory activities against adjuvant arthritis in rats and rheumatoid arthritis in humans.