Synergistic effect of Avemar on proinflammatory cytokine production and Ras-mediated cell activation
Macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide and/or phorbol esters exhibited high sensitivity to Avemar, a fermented wheat germ extract. Avemar synergized with lipopolysaccharide and PMA in the induction of the transcription of cytokine genes and release of inflammatory cytokines. At higher concentrations the preparation had a significant negative effect on the proliferation and survival of activated myeloid cell types. Avemar treatment induced the synthesis of ICAM-1 and synergized with the ICAM-inducing effect of TNF, but had no effect on VCAM-1 expression on microvascular endothelial cells.